The Vatican has officially criminalized sexual abuse of adults by priests and others who hold church office.
Pope Francis changed Catholic Church law to address shortcomings in its handlings of sexual abuse.
The update also says bishops can be removed from office for negligence if they don't report these crimes to church authorities.
Previously, bishops had more discretion, which some critics say let them ignore or cover up abuse. But there's no punishment for failing to report suspected crimes to police.